January 29, 2017 – February 4, 2017

Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute

Coy Dione
Source: NASA

Dione’s lit hemisphere faces away from Cassini’s camera, yet the moon’s darkened surface features are dimly illuminated in this image, due to Saturnshine.


Saturn’s Rings Could Contain Millions Of ‘Moonlets’, New Nasa Images Reveal
Source: The Guardian

Nasa has released spectacular images of Saturn’s rings, revealing that the rings may be home to millions of orbiting “moonlets”.


Goldfein Shares Space Focus
Source: Secretary of the Air Force Public Affairs

Space is no longer the final frontier for the joint warfighter as the Air Force will organize, train and equip those who rely on the critical domain of space. During the Mitchell Institute’s Space Power Breakfast February 3 at the Capitol Hill Club, Air Force Chief of Staff Gen. David L. Goldfein described space as …


Sierra Nevada Corp. To Expand Louisville Site, Plans 400 New Jobs
Source: Daily Camera

Aerospace firm Sierra Nevada Corp. has leased 101,000 square feet of additional space within Louisville’s Colorado Technology Center, a move that could allow the company to make …


Dr Gordon MacAlpine, Cosmology with Quasars, at Little Thompson Observatory.


SBIRS’ Sound Surveillance For National Defense
Source: Milsat Magazine

Many have written about, and expounded upon, what the true purpose of a federal government should be—there was a consensus in this regard that was derived in the US some 200 years ago that there are six specific directions that …


Standardizing Spacecraft: One Company’s Mission To Cut Time To Market
Source: Via Satellite

Denver-based aerospace company York Space Systems is currently working with government and commercial customers to standardize spacecraft, hoping to slash both satellite price and …


Returning Coronal Hole
Source: NASA

A substantial coronal hole rotated across the face of the sun this past week and is again streaming solar wind towards Earth (Jan. 30 – Feb. 2, 2017).


EchoStar Goes All-In On Satellite Broadband As EchoStar 19 Nears Service
Source: Space Intel Report

EchoStar Corp. on Feb. 1 said a cash-free transaction with sister company Dish Network will give EchoStar full ownership of the Hughes satellite consumer broadband business in return for giving Dish …


Louisville’s Dream Chaser Makes Big-Screen Appearance In ‘The Space Between Us’
Source: Daily Camera

Dream Chaser won’t make its debut as a reusable space utility vehicle performing missions in low Earth orbit for another two years. But in Hollywood …


Monster Martian Volcano Unlike Anything On Earth, Scientists Say
Source: Purdue University

An unusual meteorite found in Algeria in 2012 has given scientists information about volcanic activity on Mars, and it’s not like anything we’ve ever seen on Earth.


Invitation: NASA 3D Printed Habitat Challenge
Source: SHARC

Building a robot arm and ceramic extruder.


50 SW Opens Time Capsule
Source: 50th Space Wing Public Affairs

The 50th Space Wing celebrated the 25th anniversary of its assignment to Schriever with a time capsule ceremony in the atrium of Building 210 Monday.


Intermap Appoints Business Builder To Board Of Directors
Source: Intermap Technologies

Intermap, a leading geospatial intelligence Corporation, today announced that effective January 27, 2017, Mr. Philippe Frappier has joined the Board of Directors and will serve as Chairman of the Compensation Committee, while Mr. Andrew P. Hines has been appointed Chairman of the Audit Committee.


DigitalGlobe Completes Testing and Calibration of WorldView-4 And Begins Serving the Satellite’s First Direct Access Customer
Source: DigitalGlobe

DigitalGlobe, Inc., the global leader in earth imagery and information about our changing planet, today announced that the WorldView-4 satellite successfully completed in-orbit testing and calibration and began serving its first direct access customer on February 1.


Boeing, U.S. Air Force Extend Partnership To Sustain GPS Constellations
Source: Boeing

Boeing and the U.S. Air Force recently signed a Global Positioning System (GPS) sustainment agreement that will ensure the navigation capabilities relied upon by millions of military and commercial users remain robust for years to come.


Sierra Nevada Corporation’s Dream Chaser Spacecraft Featured In Movie “The Space Between Us”
Source: Sierra Nevada Corporation

Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) is excited to have its Dream Chaser space vehicle featured in another major motion picture, “The Space Between Us.” The Dream Chaser was also in the extended version of “The Martian,” last year’s Oscar-winning film with Matt Damon.


GOES-16 EXIS Observes Solar Flares
Source: LASP

On January 21, 2017, the LASP-built Extreme Ultraviolet and X-Ray Irradiance Sensors (EXIS) on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) GOES-16 satellite observed solar flares.


GOES-16’s Extreme Ultraviolet And X-Ray Irradiance Sensors Observes Solar Flares
Source: NOAA

On January 21, 2017, the GOES-16 Extreme Ultraviolet and X-Ray Irradiance Sensors (EXIS) observed solar flares.


First Data Released From GOES-16 EXIS Instrument Shows Solar Flare
Source: NASA/NOAA

Solar flares are huge eruptions of energy on the sun and often produce clouds of plasma traveling more than a million miles an hour. When these clouds reach Earth they can cause radio communications blackouts …


Hubble Captures Brilliant Star Death In “Rotten Egg” Nebula
Source: NASA

The Calabash Nebula is a spectacular example of the death of a low-mass star like the sun. An image taken by the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope shows the star going through a rapid transformation from a red giant to a planetary nebula …


NASA Seeks Partnerships With U.S. Companies To Advance Commercial Space Technologies
Source: NASA

NASA is seeking partnerships with U.S. companies focused on industry-developed space technologies that can advance the commercial space sector and benefit future NASA missions through the “Announcement of Collaborative Opportunity (ACO)” solicitation released by NASA’s Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD).


United Launch Alliance Is Cutting Jobs Again
Source: Denver Business Journal

United Launch Alliance is again cutting jobs as it seeks to become more price-competitive with Elon Musk’s SpaceX …


Sierra Nevada Leases 101,000 Square Feet At CTC
Source: Colorado Real Estate Journal

Etkin Johnson Real Estate Partners, a Denver-based developer, has leased 101,000 square feet of industrial space to Sierra Nevada Corp. The speculative flex building, located at 2000 Taylor Ave. in the Colorado Technology Center in Louisville, was completed in late 2016.


Craig Childs, Author Of Apocalyptic Planet, To Speak At Fort Lewis College
Source: Fort Lewis College

Craig Childs, author of Apocalyptic Planet: Field Guide to the Future of the Earth, will visit campus for a presentation and book signing on Wednesday, February 8 at 7 p.m.


AIAA Announces Its Class of 2017 Fellows and Honorary Fellows
Source: AIAA

The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) has selected its Class of 2017 AIAA Fellows and Honorary Fellows. The induction ceremony will take place at the AIAA Aerospace Spotlight Awards Gala on May 3 …


York Space Systems Announces Space Segment Enterprise Program With Extensive Partner Ecosystem
Source: York Space Systems

York Space Systems, an aerospace company specializing in complete space segment customer solutions and the manufacture of small and medium class spacecraft, today announced the launch of its Space Segment Enterprise Program (SSEP) in collaboration with the company’s trusted network of partners.


Air Purification And Plant Growth Innovations Are Space Technology Hall Of Fame Inductees At 33rd Space Symposium
Source: Space Foundation

The Space Foundation’s 33rd Space Symposium will culminate on April 6 with ceremonies celebrating the induction into the Space Technology Hall of Fame® of two innovations developed for space that now improve life on Earth, as well as celebrating 30 years of the Space Technology Hall of Fame program.


Tory Bruno, United Launch Alliance CEO, Named to Wash100 for Rocket Development & Customer Interface Leadership
Source: GovCon Exec

Executive Mosaic is honored to announce Tory Bruno, president and CEO of United Launch Alliance, as an inductee into the 2017 edition of the Wash100 …


NASA Makes An EPIC Update To Website For Daily Earth Pics
Source: NASA

NASA has upgraded its website that provides daily views of the Earth from one million miles away. NASA’s Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) camera imagery website was recently updated allowing the public to choose natural or enhanced color images of the Earth and even zoom into an area on the globe.


Raining Rocks
Source: NASA

Impact ejecta is material that is thrown up and out of the surface of a planet as a result of the impact of an meteorite, asteroid or comet. HiRISE on MRO captured an image of impact ejecta on Mars.


New Research Shows Ceres May Have Vanishing Ice Volcanoes
Source: American Geophysical Union

A recently discovered solitary ice volcano on the dwarf planet Ceres may have some hidden older siblings, say scientists who have tested a likely way such mountains of icy rock – called cryovolcanoes – might disappear over millions of years.


Global Positioning System Sparks New Data Revolution
Source: Eos

In 1996 a portion of the signals from the US military’s space-based Global Positioning System (GPS) became freely available, revolutionizing civil precision location, navigation and timing. Shortly thereafter …


UAE Aims To Launch Its First Ever Mars Mission In 2020
Source: Sputnik

The United Arab Emirates has set an ambitious goal of sending nation’s first mission to Mars in 2020, launching its unmanned orbiter from Japan’s space center.


1 SOPS Celebrates 25th Anniversary
Source: 50th Space Wing Public Affairs

The 1st Space Operations Squadron marked its 25th Anniversary during a celebration at The Mining Exchange, Colorado Springs, Colorado, Friday, January 27.


View Of Colorado’s Snow Cover From Space
Source: Fox 31

Sunny days are good days to view snowpack from space. Visible satellite images like NASA’s MODIS on the Terra satellite provide stunning perspectives …


Air Force Space Command Releases 35th Anniversary Logo
Source: Air Force Space Command

Air Force Space Command celebrates its 35th anniversary in 2017. On February 1, 2017, the command released a logo for this anniversary celebration which will be used as a branding device in many places throughout the year.


Angel Investing Club Spurs Economic Development In Colorado
Source: Rockies Venture Club

Rockies Venture Club (RVC), one of the largest and most experienced angel investing organizations in the country, closed 18 funding rounds in the 2016 year. RVC has created a community of accredited investors who are passionate about helping early stage companies raise the capital that they need to grow.


Full Braking At Alpha Centauri
Source: Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research

In April last year, billionaire Yuri Milner announced the Breakthrough Starshot Initiative. He plans to invest 100 million US dollars in the development of an ultra-light light sail that …


Zhang Receives NSF CAREER Award
Source: Colorado School of Mines

Colorado School of Mines Mechanical Engineering Assistant Professor Xiaoli Zhang has received an NSF CAREER award for her project on human-robot interaction teleoperations.


Applications Due For Adams State Summer High School Robotics Apprenticeship
Source: Adams State University

For the second year, Adams State University will offer the summer High School Apprenticeship Research Program in Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, funded by a grant from the Army Research Office. Interested high school students must apply for the apprenticeships by February 28, 2017.


Heroes Of Space Exhibit
Source: Space Foundation Discovery Center

Opening February 25, Heroes of Space is a small exhibit highlighting the stories of eight space professionals and how they became a part of the space industry. A hands-on interactive exhibit, Heroes of Space invites visitors to learn how they can be a part of the space industry.


AIAA Region V Student Conference
Source: Metropolitan State University of Denver and USAFA AIAA Student Branches

Metropolitan State University Denver is proud to host the 2017 AIAA Region V Student Paper Conference. The conference begins Friday, April 7th with the arrival of over 200 of students, faculty advisors, judges, and conference committee members.


It’s Never ‘Groundhog Day’ At Jupiter
Source: NASA

NASA’s Juno spacecraft will make its fourth flyby over Jupiter’s mysterious cloud tops on Thursday, Feb. 2, at 4:57 a.m. PST (7:57 a.m. EST, 12:57 UTC). All of Juno’s eight science instruments, including the Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper (JIRAM) instrument, will be on and collecting data during the flyby.


Orion Designed To Keep Crew In The ‘Loop’
Source: Spaceflight Insider

NASA’s next crew-rated spacecraft, Orion, has been engineered so that the vehicle is designed with the crews – who will fly on it – firmly in mind. An official working on Orion told SpaceFlight Insider that …


New Horizons Refines Course For Next Flyby
Source: NASA

NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft completed a short propulsive maneuver Wednesday to refine its track toward a New Year’s Day 2019 flyby past 2014 MU69, a Kuiper Belt object (KBO) some 4 billion miles (6.4 billion kilometers) from Earth.


Pluto’s Dark Equator Explained
Source: Nature

The cosmic impact that formed Pluto’s moon Charon several billion years ago may also have created the dark regions seen at Pluto’s equator …


Jupiter Polar Haze In False Color
Source: NASA/JPL

A new false color view of Jupiter’s polar haze was created by citizen scientist Gerald Eichstädt using data from the JunoCam instrument on NASA’s Juno spacecraft.


Aerospace Day At The Colorado State Capitol 2017
Source: CSBR

Join the Colorado Space Business Roundtable (CSBR), the Colorado Space Coalition (CSC), Citizens for Space Exploration (CSE), and the Aerospace States’ Association (ASA), along side numerous aerospace partner organizations for a day at the Colorado State Capitol.


Infinite Harvest Grows Food For The Earth — And Beyond
Source: Westword

The Infinite Harvest conference-room table is spread with an array of microgreens, tiny leaves and fronds in many shades of purple and green. Paul Dominguez hands over a tuft of pale-yellow shoots …


First Look At Findings Of NASA Twins Study
Source: NASA

Preliminary research results for the NASA Twins Study debuted at NASA’s Human Research Program’s annual Investigators’ Workshop in Galveston, Texas the week of January 23. NASA astronaut Scott Kelly returned home last March after nearly one year in space living on the International Space Station. His identical twin brother, Mark, remained on Earth.


GOLD One Step Closer To Launching Into Space
Source: LASP

A NASA instrument that will study the upper atmosphere and the impact of space weather on Earth is a step closer on its journey into space.


Science, Space, And Technology Committee Announces Priorities For The 115th Congress
Source: U.S. House of Representatives

U.S. Rep. Lamar Smith (R-Texas), chairman of the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, today released a statement along with an outline of the committee’s top priorities for the 115th Congress.


Dunes In Northern Summer
Source: NASA/JPL

Repeated observations by HiRISE of dunes on Mars show measurable changes in some locations. This discovery adds to the growing evidence that there are active processes happening all over the surface of Mars today.


Is Space The Fountain Of Youth? NASA Twins Study May Provide Clue
Source: CNET

Astronaut Scott Kelly spent a year in space aboard the International Space Station while twin brother and former astronaut Mark Kelly stayed on Earth. Meanwhile, scientists studied both men for hints of how extended time in space …


Colorado Honors AFSPC 35th Anniversary
Source: Air Force Space Command

The Colorado Legislature honored the 35th Anniversary of Air Force Space command by approving a Joint Resolution during the annual Colorado Military and Veterans Appreciation Day at the Capital here January 27. Jointly sponsored by Colorado State Representatives Terri Carver and Mike Weissman and State Senators Kent Lambert and Rhonda Fields, the resolution honored each of the major Colorado-based AFSPC units.


Secretive Colorado Springs Airmen Solve Space Problems By — Gasp — Talking
Source: The Gazette – Colorado Springs

Airmen at Schriever Air Force Base are solving problems in space by doing something unusual in their secretive world …


CU Boulder Highlights Colorado As Spaceflight Center
Source: Aviation Week

Just as Florida and California became U.S. spaceflight hubs because they border oceans, Colorado’s space industry owes its existence to the state’s distance from them. In 1955, President Dwight Eisenhower decided that the Glenn L. Martin Co. had a good idea …


Bye Aerospace, SolAero Technologies Collaborate On Medium-Altitude UAV
Source: SolAero Technologies Corp.

SolAero Technologies Corp. announced an important product development and manufacturing collaboration with Bye Aerospace to power Bye’s StratoAirNet solar-electric unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) with SolAero’s high-efficiency solar cells and flexible solar modules.


Hidden Figures Speaks To Denver’s STEM-Focused Girls
Source: Westword

In a dimly lit theater at the Alamo Drafthouse in Littleton, 75 girls in elementary through high school are chitchatting, placing their food orders with theater waiters and patiently awaiting the start of the film. Directed by Theodore Melfi, Hidden Figures tells the true but seldom-heard story of three African American women who were instrumental in sending Americans …


FRCC Observatory In Fort Collins Open For Stargazing Feb. 3
Source: Front Range Community College

The Sunlight Peak Observatory at Front Range Community College will be open for public stargazing from 7 to 9 p.m. Friday, February 3.


Mines-UNC Collaboration To Develop Teachers Gets $140K
Source: Colorado School of Mines

A collaboration between Colorado School of Mines and University of Northern Colorado that creates a pathway for Mines students to become STEM teachers has been awarded $140,000 by 100Kin10, a national effort to add 100,000 STEM teachers to the nation’s classrooms by 2021.


Zacheis Planetarium Announces Movie Schedule
Source: Adams State University

The Adams State University Zacheis Planetarium has released the free public showings schedule through February 18, 2017.


Launching Our Open Data Program For Disaster Response
Source: DigitalGlobe

Today, we formally launch our Open Data Program with a special focus on disaster response. DigitalGlobe will release openly licensed pre- and post-event imagery for select natural disasters each year, and our crowdsourcing platform, Tomnod, will prioritize micro-tasking to expedite damage assessments.


Rosa Wallace Receives The 2017 Chambliss Medal
Source: NCAR/UCAR/HAO

Rosa Wallace received the 2017 Chambliss Astronomy Achievement Student Award, which recognizes exemplary research by undergraduate and graduate students who present posters at meetings of the American Astronomical Society (AAS). Rosa was a 2016 summer REU student who was hosted by NCAR/HAO and CU/LASP.


NASA Day Of Remembrance
Source: NASA

A ceremony to mark NASA’s Day of Remembrance was held Tuesday, January 31, 2017, at Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington, Virginia. Wreaths were laid in memory of those men and women who lost their lives in the quest for space exploration.


Two Aerospace Students Make ’20 Twenties’ To Watch
Source: University of Colorado Boulder

Aerospace undergraduates Matthew Hurst (senior) and Christine Reilly (junior) are being recognized by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics’ Aviation Week Network’s 2017 awards program “Tomorrow’s Engineering Leaders: The 20 Twenties.” The annual honor recognizes top science, technology, engineering and math undergraduate and graduate students.


Former NASA Astronaut Steve Lindsey To Speak At Wings Over The Rockies Cine-Talk
Source: Wings Over The Rockies Air & Space Museum

On February 3rd only, Wings Over the Rockies Air & Space Museum will be offering a private screening of the new film The Space Between Us. Be sure to arrive on time as we will be featuring former NASA astronaut and Vice President of Sierra Nevada Corporation’s Space Exploration Systems Unit, Steve Lindsey, who will offer insights and background on Sierra Nevada Corporation’s Dream Chaser® spacecraft.


Sierra Nevada Prepares For Spring Landing Test Of Dream Chaser
Source: NASASpaceFlight

Continuing on a developmental track as part of its CRS-2 contract award from NASA, the Sierra Nevada Corporation has shipped the Engineering Test Article of their Dream Chaser space plane to Edwards Air Force Base, California, ahead of a planned spring 2017 free-flight to test the vehicle’s low-atmosphere control and landing capabilities.


Dream Chaser Mini ‘Space Taxi’ Arrives At Edwards Air Force Base
Source: Daily Mail

It is the return of the shuttle – albeit in a somewhat smaller form. Sierra Nevada Corporation has delivered its Dream Chaser spacecraft Wednesday to NASA’s Armstrong Flight Research Center in California, located on Edwards Air Force Base. There, it will undergo several months of testing as part of a NASA contract to use it to deliver cargo to the ISS in 2019.


Colorado Legislature Honors AFSPC 35th Birthday
Source: State of Colorado

Members of the Seventy-first General Assembly recognize the United States Air Force Space Command for thirty-five years of service in defense of our nation and the principles of freedom globally; and express our deepest pride in Colorado’s role in the United States Air Force Command’s mission and our deepest gratitude for the men and women of the United States Air Force who carry out that mission.


Space-Rated Enclosure Provides High Density Computing, Reliable Operation For Longer In-orbit Missions
Source: Aitech Defense Systems Inc.

Aitech Defense Systems Inc. now offers a cold plate cooled, space-rated enclosure for use in mission-critical, space applications. Built on a 3U CompactPCI platform using machined aluminum, the new 3-slot E905 provides maximum reliability and strength with minimal weight and power consumption.


Aleut To Support Advanced Space Operations School At Peterson Air Force Base
Source: Aleut Management Services

Aleut Aerospace Engineering, LLC (AAE) was recently awarded the $19.9 Million Advanced Space Operations School (ASOpS) Instructor, Information Technology and Security Services contract, located at Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado. The contract’s five-year period of performance starts on February 1, 2017.


Intermap Announces Mapping Services Agreement, Radar Upgrade, Executive Change
Source: Intermap Technologies

Intermap, a leading geospatial intelligence Corporation, today announced that it has entered into an agreement to provide multi-frequency, high resolution radar mapping. Intermap will conduct an airborne survey, assign accurate coordinates (orthorectified data), and produce imagery and elevation products that will support risk management, infrastructure and security applications. In addition, the Company will provide supervisors who will train, assist and monitor local personnel and operations.


AAAS “Catalyzing Advocacy In Science And Engineering” Workshop Student Competition
Source: CIRES

The CIRES Center for Science and Technology Policy Research is hosting a competition to send two CU Boulder students to Washington, DC to attend the AAAS “Catalyzing Advocacy in Science and Engineering” workshop.


$15 Million – And A Personal Touch – Accelerate Aerospace Research, Education At CU Boulder
Source: University of Colorado Boulder

A new gift to the College of Engineering and Applied Science from passionate CU Boulder supporters Ann Smead and her husband Michael Byram is strengthening CU Boulder’s aerospace program. With support totaling more than $15 million, including the most recent $10 million gift, the family aims to set CU Boulder apart from its aerospace peers and propel it to the top of national rankings by attracting the best and brightest doctoral students as well as outstanding young faculty in aerospace engineering.


Public Star Night: “NASA’s New Horizons Mission To Pluto And Beyond”
Source: Little Thompson Observatory

Dr. John Spencer from the Southwest Research Institute in Boulder will speak at Little Thompson Observatory on February 17, 2017. The title of his presentation is “NASA’s New Horizons Mission to Pluto and beyond”. Join Dr. Spencer and the Little Thompson Observatory to discuss the many remarkable things that were learned about the Pluto system during this mission, and the plans for New Horizon’s continued exploration of the Kuiper Belt.


Mobile Launcher Verification, Validation Underway
Source: NASA

NASA recently took another step forward on efforts to send humans beyond the moon. Verification and validation began on the mobile launcher that will be the starting point for a future crew who will venture into deep space. The mobile launcher is designed to support the assembly, testing and check-out of the agency’s Space Launch System (SLS) rocket and the Orion spacecraft.


Close Views Show Saturn’s Rings In Unprecedented Detail
Source: NASA

Newly released images showcase the incredible closeness with which NASA’s Cassini spacecraft, now in its “Ring-Grazing” orbits phase, is observing Saturn’s dazzling rings of icy debris.


First-Ever GPS Data Release To Boost Space-Weather Science
Source: DOE/Los Alamos National Laboratory

Today, more than 16 years of space-weather data is publicly available for the first time in history. The data comes from space-weather sensors developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory on board the nation’s Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites.


NASA Hosts Media Day For Colorado Study Of Snow-bound Water Resources
Source: NASA

NASA will host a media day at 9:30 a.m. MST on February 13 to highlight a field campaign designed to advance new remote-sensing techniques to measure the amount of water held in snow, a key factor in calculating water supplies in many parts of the world.


High-Altitude Water Acts As Atmospheric Escape Route For Martian Hydrogen
Source: LASP

LASP researchers have discovered an atmospheric escape route for hydrogen on Mars, a mechanism that may have played a significant role in the planet’s loss of liquid water.


Innovation Experts Provide Unique Approaches To Space Solutions At 33rd Space Symposium
Source: Space Foundation

For its Space Symposium panel discussion on innovation, the Space Foundation is bringing together thought leaders, entrepreneurs and investors to offer unique approaches to space solutions.


New Cheyenne Supercomputer Triples Scientific Capability With Greater Efficiency
Source: NCAR/UCAR
The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) is launching operations this month of one of the world’s most powerful and energy-efficient supercomputers, providing the nation with a major new tool to advance understanding of the atmospheric and related Earth system sciences.